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The active metabolite of ticlopidine prevents binding of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to its platelet receptor, impairing the ADP-mediated activation of the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex. It is proposed that the inhibition involves a defect in the mobilization from the storage sites of the platelet granules to the outer membrane. No direct interference occurs with the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. As the glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex is the major receptor for fibrinogen, its impaired activation prevents fibrinogen binding to platelets and inhibits platelet aggregation. By blocking the amplification of platelet activation by released ADP, platelet aggregation induced by agonists other than ADP is also inhibited by the active metabolite of ticlopidine.
Ticlopidine is a platelet aggregation inhibitor structurally and pharmacologically similar to clopidogrel. When taken orally, ticlopidine causes a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of both platelet aggregation and release of platelet granule constituents, as well as a prolongation of bleeding time. The intact drug has no significant in vitro activity at the concentrations attained in vivo; and, although analysis of urine and plasma indicates at least 20 metabolites, no metabolite which accounts for the activity of ticlopidine has been isolated.
Metabolized extensively by the liver; only trace amounts of intact drug are detected in the urine. At least 20 metabolites have been identified. It has been proposed that 1 or more active metabolites may account for ticlopidine's activity, because ticlopidine itself is an extremely weak platelet aggregation inhibitor in vitro at the concentrations achieved in vivo. However, no active metabolite has been identified.
Single oral doses of ticlopidine at 1600 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg were lethal to rats and mice, respectively. Symptoms of acute toxicity were GI hemorrhage, convulsions, hypothermia, dyspnea, loss of equilibrium and abnormal gait.
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