Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors of subtype P2Y12. In contrast to the other antiplatelet drugs, ticagrelor has a binding site different from ADP, making it an allosteric antagonist, and the blockage is reversible. Moreover, the drug does not need hepatic activation, which might work better for patients with genetic variants regarding the enzyme CYP2C19 (although it is not certain whether clopidogrel is significantly influenced by such variants).
Plasma concentrations of ticagrelor are slightly increased (12–23%) in elderly patients, women, patients of Asian ethnicity, and patients with mild hepatic impairment. They are decreased in patients that described themselves as 'coloured' and such with severe renal impairment. These differences are considered clinically irrelevant. In Japanese people, concentrations are 40% higher than in Caucasians, or 20% after body weight correction. The drug has not been tested in patients with severe hepatic impairment.
The main metabolite, AR-C124910XX, is formed quickly via CYP3A4 by de-hydroxyethylation at position 5 of the cyclopentane ring. The metabolite reaches 30–40% of ticagrelor's plasma concentrations.
Bleeding is the expected pharmacologic effect of overdosing. If bleeding occurs, appropriate supportive measures should be taken. Other effects of overdose may include gastrointestinal effects (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) or ventricular pauses.
On July 27, 2020, LGM Pharma announced its acquisition of the formulation development and drug product contract manufacturing business of Nexgen Pharma, Inc. As a result, you will notice our new logo and visuals throughout the website. We’re working on updates to reflect the exciting, expanded CDMO capabilities and services we now can offer you.