Product Name

Theobromine

CAS Number

83-67-0

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Product Name:
Theobromine
CAS Number:
83-67-0
Indication:
theobromine is used as a vasodilator, a diuretic, and heart stimulant. And similar to caffeine, it may be useful in management of fatigue and orthostatic hypotension.
Mode of Action:

Theobromine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3_, 5_-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine and theobromine act as antagonist at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of xanthine derivatives such as theobromine and caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake.

Pharmacodynamics:

Theobromine, a xanthine derivative like caffeine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity).

IUPAC:
3, 7-dimethyl-2, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2, 6-dione
ATC:
C03BD01 R03DA07
PubChem:
5429
DrugBank:
DB01412
Formula:
C5H5N5S
Molecular Mass:
180.164
SMILES:
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)NC(=O)N2C
AHFS Code:
92:02.00*
InChi:
YAPQBXQYLJRXSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
General Reference:
General Reference:

  1. Usmani OS, Belvisi MG, Patel HJ, Crispino N, Birrell MA, Korbonits M, Korbonits D, Barnes PJ: Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough. FASEB J. 2005 Feb;19(2):231-3. Epub 2004 Nov 17. Pubmed
  2. Slattery ML, West DW: Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1993 Nov;4(6):559-63. Pubmed

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