Blockade of dopaminergic D_ receptors in the limbic system alleviates positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations, delusions, and erratic behavior and speech. Blockade of serotonergic 5-HT_ receptors in the mesocortical tract, causes an excess of dopamine and an increase in dopamine transmission, resulting in an increase in dopamine transmission and an elimination of core negative symptoms. Dopamine receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway are not affected by risperidone and extrapyramidal effects are avoided. Like other 5-HT_ antagonists, risperidone also binds at alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and, to a lesser extent, at histamine H1 and alpha(_)-adrenergic receptors.
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication. It is most often used to treat delusional psychosis (including schizophrenia), but risperidone is also used to treat some forms of bipolar disorder and psychotic depression. It also has shown some success in treating symptoms of Asperger's Syndrome and autism. Risperidone is now the most commonly prescribed antipsychotic medication in the United States.
Extensively metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 2D6 isozyme to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, which has approximately the same receptor binding affinity as risperidone. Hydroxylation is dependent on debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase and metabolism is sensitive to genetic polymorphisms in debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase. Risperidone also undergoes N-dealkylation to a lesser extent.
Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, sedation, tachycardia, hypotension, and extrapyramidal symptoms. LD50=82.1mg/kg (orally in mice).
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