Product Name

Phenobarbital Sodium

CAS Number

57-30-7

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Product Name:
Phenobarbital Sodium
CAS Number:
57-30-7
Indication:
For the treatment of all types of seizures except absence seizures.
Mode of Action:

Phenobarbital acts on GABAA receptors, increasing synaptic inhibition. This has the effect of elevating seizure threshold and reducing the spread of seizure activity from a seizure focus. Phenobarbital may also inhibit calcium channels, resulting in a decrease in excitatory transmitter release. The sedative-hypnotic effects of phenobarbital are likely the result of its effect on the polysynaptic midbrain reticular formation, which controls CNS arousal.

Pharmacodynamics:

Phenobarbital, the longest-acting barbiturate, is used for its anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic properties in the management of all seizure disorders except absence (petit mal).

Metabolism:

Hepatic (mostly via CYP2C19).

Toxicity:

CNS and respiratory depression which may progress to Cheyne-Stokes respiration, areflexia, constriction of the pupils to a slight degree (though in severe poisoning they may wshow paralytic dilation), oliguria, tachycardia, hypotension, lowered body temperature, and coma. Typical shock syndrome (apnea, circulatory collapse, respiratory arrest, and death) may occur.

IUPAC:
2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-Pyrimidinetrione, 5-ethyl-5-phenyl-, monosodium salt Barbituric acid, 5-ethyl-5-phenyl-, sodium salt Phenobarbital sodium
ATC:
N03AA02
PubChem:
4763
DrugBank:
DB01174
Formula:
C12-H11-N2-Na-O3, C12-H12-N2-O3.Na
Molecular Mass:
254.22
Synonyms:
5-Ethyl-5-phenyl-2,4,6-(1H,3H,5H)pyrimidinetrione monosodium salt, 5-Ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid sodium salt, CCRIS 503, EINECS 200-322-3, Fenobarbital natrium, Fenobarbital natrium [Polish], Fenobarbital sodico, Fenobarbital sodico [INN-Spanish], Gardenal sodium, Linasen, Luminal sodium, Phenemalnatrium, Phenemalum, Phenobal sodium, Phenobarbital elixir, Phenobarbital Na, Phenobarbital sodique, Phenobarbital sodique [INN-French], Phenobarbital sodium, Phenobarbital sodium salt, Phenobarbitalnatrium, Phenobarbitalum natricum, Phenobarbitalum natricum [INN-Latin], Phenobarbiton-natrium, Phenobarbitone sodium, Phenobarbitone sodium salt, Phenyl-aethyl-barbitursaeure natrium, Phenyl-aethyl-barbitursaeure natrium [German], Phenylethylbarbituric acid, sodium salt, Sodium 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbiturate, Sodium luminal, Sodium phenobarbital, Sodium phenobarbitone, Sodium phenobarbiturate, Sodium phenylethylbarbiturate, Sodium phenylethylmalonylurea, Sol phenobarbital, Sol phenobarbitone, Soluble phenobarbital, Soluble phenobarbitone, UNII-SW9M9BB5K3
SMILES:
c1([C@@]2(C(NC([O-])=NC2=O)=O)CC)ccccc1.[Na+]
AHFS Code:
28:24.0
InChi:
1S/C12H12N2O3.Na/c1-2-12(8-6-4-3-5-7-8)9(15)13-11(17)14-10(12)16;/h3-7H,2H2,1H3,(H2,13,14,15,16,17);/q;+1/p-1
General Reference:
General Reference:

  1. Kwan P, Brodie MJ: Phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy in the 21st century: a critical review. Epilepsia. 2004 Sep;45(9):1141-9. Pubmed
  2. Taylor S, Tudur Smith C, Williamson PR, Marson AG: Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(4):CD002217. Pubmed
  3. Tudur Smith C, Marson AG, Williamson PR: Carbamazepine versus phenobarbitone monotherapy for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD001904. Pubmed
  4. Kalviainen R, Eriksson K, Parviainen I: Refractory generalised convulsive status epilepticus : a guide to treatment. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(9):759-68. Pubmed
  5. Booth D, Evans DJ: Anticonvulsants for neonates with seizures. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD004218. Pubmed

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