Product Name

Palonosetron Hydrochloride

CAS Number

135729-56-5

LGM Pharma is an API distributor. LGM Pharma can supply CGMP and/or DMF products, subject to availability and manufacturer requirements. LGM Pharma does not sell or supply APIs or finished dosage products to individual patients, doctors, pharmacies, or any pharmaceutical companies.

Questions? Call our customer API support number 1-(800)-881-8210

Product Name:
Palonosetron Hydrochloride
CAS Number:
135729-56-5
Indication:
For the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, as well as prevention of acute nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Also used for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting for up to 24 hours post operation.
Mode of Action:

Palonosetron is a selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. The antiemetic activity of the drug is brought about through the inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors present both centrally (medullary chemoreceptor zone) and peripherally (GI tract). This inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in turn inhibits the visceral afferent stimulation of the vomiting center, likely indirectly at the level of the area postrema, as well as through direct inhibition of serotonin activity within the area postrema and the chemoreceptor trigger zone. Alternative mechanisms appear to be primarily responsible for delayed nausea and vomiting induced by emetogenic chemotherapy, since similar temporal relationships between between serotonin and emesis beyond the first day after a dose have not been established, and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists generally have not appeared to be effective alone in preventing or ameliorating delayed effects. It has been hypothesized that palonosetron’s potency and long plasma half-life may contribute to its observed efficacy in preventing delayed nausea and vomiting caused by moderately emetogenic cancer chemotherapy.

Pharmacodynamics:

Palonosetron is an antinauseant and antiemetic agent indicated for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with moderately-emetogenic cancer chemotherapy and for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Palonosetron is a highly specific and selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is pharmacologically related to other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, but differs structurally. Palonosetron has a high affinity for 5-HT3 receptors, but has little to no affinity for other receptors. The serontonin 5-HT3 receptors are located on the nerve terminals of the vagus in the periphery, and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the area postrema. It is suggested that chemotherapeutic agents release serotonin from the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine by causing degenerative changes in the GI tract. The serotonin then stimulates the vagal and splanchnic nerve receptors that project to the medullary vomiting center, as well as the 5-HT3 receptors in the area postrema, thus initiating the vomiting reflex, causing nausea and vomiting.

Metabolism:

Hepatic (50%), primarily CYP2D6-mediated, although CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 are also involved.

Toxicity:

A single intravenous dose of palonosetron at 30 mg/kg (947 and 474 times the human dose for rats and mice, respectively, based on body surface area) was lethal to rats and mice. The major signs of toxicity were convulsions, gasping, pallor, cyanosis and collapse.

IUPAC:
(5S)-3-[(3S)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-yl]-3-azatricyclo[7.3.1.0⁵,¹³]trideca-1(12),9(13),10-trien-2-one
ATC:
A04AA55, A04AA05
PubChem:
6337614
DrugBank:
DB00377 (APRD00351)
Formula:
C19-H25-ClN2-O
Molecular Mass:
332.87
Synonyms:
Aloxi, Palonosetron HCl
SMILES:
Cl.[H][C@]12CCCC3=C1C(=CC=C3)C(=O)N(C2)[C@@H]1CN2CCC1CC2
AHFS Code:
56:22.00 — Antiemetics
InChi:
InChI=1S/C19H24N2O.ClH/c22-19-16-6-2-4-14-3-1-5-15(18(14)16)11-21(19)17-12-20-9-7-13(17)8-10-20;/h2,4,6,13,15,17H,1,3,5,7-12H2;1H/t15-,17-;/m1./s1
General Reference:
General Reference:

1. De Leon A: Palonosetron (Aloxi): a second-generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2006 Oct;19(4):413-6. [PubMed:17106506]
2. Stoltz R, Cyong JC, Shah A, Parisi S: Pharmacokinetic and safety evaluation of palonosetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist, in U.S. and Japanese healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004 May;44(5):520-31. [PubMed:15102873]
3. Rubenstein EB: Palonosetron: a unique 5-HT3 receptor antagonist indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2004 May;2(5):284-9. [PubMed:16163194]
4. Yang LP, Scott LJ: Palonosetron: in the prevention of nausea and vomiting. Drugs. 2009 Nov 12;69(16):2257-78. doi: 10.2165/11200980-000000000-00000. [PubMed:19852528]
5. Siddiqui MA, Scott LJ: Palonosetron. Drugs. 2004;64(10):1125-32; discussion 1133-4. [PubMed:15139789]
6. Eisenberg P, MacKintosh FR, Ritch P, Cornett PA, Macciocchi A: Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of palonosetron in patients receiving highly emetogenic cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a dose-ranging clinical study. Ann Oncol. 2004 Feb;15(2):330-7. [PubMed:14760130]
7. Stoltz R, Parisi S, Shah A, Macciocchi A: Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of intravenous [l4C]-palonosetron in healthy human volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2004 Nov;25(8):329-37. [PubMed:15378559]

Products currently covered by valid US Patents are offered for R&D use in accordance with 35 USC 271(e)+A13(1). Any patent infringement and resulting liability is solely at buyer risk.

LGM currently offers Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) for non-GMP/R&D use. Please inquire about Monoclonal Antibodies produced under GMP conditions.

Questions? Call our customer API support number 1-(800)-881-8210. 

Ask us about this product

API’s From Quality Manufacturers:

  • Streamlined API supply towards initial research stages as well as larger quantities of cGMP material for clinical trials and product commercialization
  • Premium quality GMP certified and fully accredited API manufacturing plants
  • Technical packages as well as access to filed DMF, ASMF or CEP (subject to availability)
  • Regulatory and technical assistance towards any submission type based on specific customer requirements

Find an API Product

SEARCH
Generic filters