Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone. The mechanism of action of paliperidone, as with other drugs having efficacy in schizophrenia, is unknown, but it has been proposed that the drug's therapeutic activity in schizophrenia is mediated through a combination of central dopamine Type 2 (D2) and serotonin Type 2 (5HT2A) receptor antagonism.
Paliperidone is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica. Chemically, paliperidone is primary active metabolite of the older antipsychotic risperidone (paliperidone is 9-hydroxyrisperidone). While its specific mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed paliperidone and risperidone act via similar, if not the same, pathways.
Although in vitro studies suggested a role for CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in the metabolism of paliperidone, in vivo results indicate that these isozymes play a limited role in the overall elimination of paliperidone. Four primary metabolic pathways have been identified in vivo, none of which could be shown to account for more than 10% of the dose: dealkylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and benzisoxazole scission. Paliperidone does not undergo extensive metabolism and a significant portion of its metabolism occurs in the kidneys.
The possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reaction of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk of aspiration with induced emesis.
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