Product Name

Hydrochlorothiazide

CAS Number

58-93-5

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Product Name:
Hydrochlorothiazide
CAS Number:
58-93-5
Indication:
For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema.
Mode of Action:

Hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron by inhibiting the sodium-chloride symporter (SLC12A3) in the distal convoluted tubule, which is responsible for 5% of total sodium reabsorption. Normally, the sodium-chloride symporter transports sodium and chloride from the lumen into the epithelial cell lining the distal convoluted tubule. The energy for this is provided by a sodium gradient established by sodium-potassium ATPases on the basolateral membrane. Once sodium has entered the cell, it is transported out into the basolateral interstitium via the sodium-potassium ATPase, causing an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium, thereby establishing an osmotic gradient for water reabsorption. By blocking the sodium-chloride symporter, hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces the osmotic gradient and water reabsorption throughout the nephron.Hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron by inhibiting the sodium-chloride symporter (SLC12A3) in the distal convoluted tubule, which is responsible for 5% of total sodium reabsorption. Normally, the sodium-chloride symporter transports sodium and chloride from the lumen into the epithelial cell lining the distal convoluted tubule. The energy for this is provided by a sodium gradient established by sodium-potassium ATPases on the basolateral membrane. Once sodium has entered the cell, it is transported out into the basolateral interstitium via the sodium-potassium ATPase, causing an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium, thereby establishing an osmotic gradient for water reabsorption. By blocking the sodium-chloride symporter, hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces the osmotic gradient and water reabsorption throughout the nephron.

Pharmacodynamics:

Thiazides such as hydrochlorothiazide promote water loss from the body (diuretics). They inhibit Na+/Cl reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. Thiazides also cause loss of potassium and an increase in serum uric acid. Thiazides are often used to treat hypertension, but their hypotensive effects are not necessarily due to their diuretic activity. Thiazides have been shown to prevent hypertension-related morbidity and mortality although the mechanism is not fully understood. Thiazides cause vasodilation by activating calcium-activated potassium channels (large conductance) in vascular smooth muscles and inhibiting various carbonic anhydrases in vascular tissue.

Metabolism:

Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized.

Toxicity:

The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in the mouse and rat.

IUPAC:
6-chloro-1, 1-dioxo-3, 4-dihydro-2H-1$l, {6}, 2, 4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
ATC:
C03AA03
PubChem:
3639
DrugBank:
DB00999 (APRD00092)
Formula:
C9H11IN2O5
Molecular Mass:
297.739
Synonyms:
Dihydrochlorothiazid Dihydrochlorothiazide Dihydrochlorothiazidum Dihydrochlorurit Dihydrochlorurite Dihydroxychlorothiazidum HCTZ HCZ Hydrochlorothiazid Hydrochlorthiazide
SMILES:
NS(=O)(=O)C1=C(Cl)C=C2NCNS(=O)(=O)C2=C1
AHFS Code:
40:28.2
InChi:
JZUFKLXOESDKRF-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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