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Sulfonylureas likely bind to ATP-sensitive potassium-channel receptors on the pancreatic cell surface, reducing potassium conductance and causing depolarization of the membrane. Depolarization stimulates calcium ion influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels, raising intracellular concentrations of calcium ions, which induces the secretion, or exocytosis, of insulin.
Glipizide, a second-generation sulfonylurea, is used with diet to lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus type II. The primary mode of action of glipizide in experimental animals appears to be the stimulation of insulin secretion from the beta cells of pancreatic islet tissue and is thus dependent on functioning beta cells in the pancreatic islets. In humans glipizide appears to lower the blood glucose acutely by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, an effect dependent upon functioning beta cells in the pancreatic islets. In man, stimulation of insulin secretion by glipizide in response to a meal is undoubtedly of major importance. Fasting insulin levels are not elevated even on long-term glipizide administration, but the postprandial insulin response continues to be enhanced after at least 6 months of treatment. Some patients fail to respond initially, or gradually lose their responsiveness to sulfonylurea drugs, including glipizide.
Hepatic. The major metabolites of glipizide are products of aromatic hydroxylation and have no hypoglycemic activity. A minor metabolite which accounts for less than 2% of a dose, an acetylaminoethyl benzine derivatives, is reported to have 1/10 to 1/3 as much hypoglycemic activity as the parent compound.
The acute oral toxicity was extremely low in all species tested (LD50 greater than 4 g/kg). Overdosage of sulfonylureas including glipizide can produce hypoglycemia.
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