Estradiol enters target cells freely (e.g., female organs, breasts, hypothalamus, pituitary) and interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary.
Estradiol, the principal intracellular human estrogen, is substantially more active than its metabolites, estrone, and estriol, at the cellular level.
Exogenous estrogens are metabolized using the same mechanism as endogenous estrogens. Estrogens are partially metabolized by cytochrome P450.
Can cause nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
Estradiol (also known as E2 or 17β-estradiol) is a naturally occurring hormone that circulates endogenously within the human body. It is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids and acts as the major female sex hormone. As such, estradiol plays an essential role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle, in the development of puberty and secondary female sex characteristics, as well as in ageing and several hormonally-mediated disease states. Estrogen mediates its effects across the body through potent agonism of the Estrogen Receptor (ER), which is located in various tissues including in the breasts, uterus, ovaries, skin, prostate, bone, fat, and brain. Estradiol binds to both subtypes of the Estrogen Receptor: Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα) and Estrogen Receptor Beta (ERβ). Estradiol also acts as a potent agonist of G Protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER), which has recently been recognized as a major mediator of estradiol's rapid cellular effects.
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