Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid agonist. Unbound dexamethasone crosses cell membranes and binds with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors. This complex binds to DNA elements (glucocorticoid response elements) which results in a modification of transcription and, hence, protein synthesis in order to achieve inhibition of leukocyte infiltration at the site of inflammation, interference in the function of mediators of inflammatory response, suppression of humoral immune responses, and reduction in edema or scar tissue. The antiinflammatory actions of dexamethasone are thought to involve phospholipase A_ inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, which control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
Dexamethasone and its derivatives, dexamethasone sodium phosphate and dexamethasone acetate, are synthetic glucocorticoids. Used for its antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive properties and ability to penetrate the CNS, dexamethasone is used alone to manage cerebral edema and with tobramycin to treat corticosteroid-responsive inflammatory ocular conditions.
Oral, rat LD50: >3 gm/kg. Signs of overdose include retinal toxicity, glaucoma, subcapsular cataract, gastrointestinal bleeding, pancreatitis, aseptic bone necrosis, osteoporosis, myopathies, obesity, edemas, hypertension, proteinuria, diabetes, sleep disturbances, psychiatric syndromes, delayed wound healing, atrophy and fragility of the skin, ecchymosis, and pseudotumor cerebri.
On July 27, 2020, LGM Pharma announced its acquisition of the formulation development and drug product contract manufacturing business of Nexgen Pharma, Inc. As a result, you will notice our new logo and visuals throughout the website. We’re working on updates to reflect the exciting, expanded CDMO capabilities and services we now can offer you.