Product Name

Citalopram Hydrobromide

CAS Number

59729-32-7

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Product Name:
Citalopram Hydrobromide
CAS Number:
59729-32-7
Indication:
For the treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include: treatment of mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy.
Mode of Action:

The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of citalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. Citalopram blocks the reuptake of serotonin at the serotonin reuptake pump of the neuronal membrane, enhancing the actions of serotonin on 5HT1A autoreceptors. SSRIs bind with significantly less affinity to histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine receptors than tricyclic antidepressant drugs.

Pharmacodynamics:

Citalopram is one of a class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is used to treat the depression associated with mood disorders. It is also used on occassion in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder and anxiety. The antidepressant, antiobsessive-compulsive, and antibulimic actions of citalopram are presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin. In vitro studies show that citalopram is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. Citalopram has no significant affinity for adrenergic (α1, α2, β), cholinergic, GABA, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2), or benzodiazepine receptors; antagonism of such receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects for other psychotropic drugs. The chronic administration of citalopram was found to downregulate brain norepinephrine receptors, as has been observed with other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Citalopram does not inhibit monoamine oxidase.

Metabolism:

Citalopram is metabolized mainly in the liver via N-demethylation to its principle metabolite, demethylcitalopram. Other metabolites include didemethylcitalopram, citalopram N-oxide, and a deaminated propionic acid derivative. However, the predominant entity in plasma is unchanged citalopram. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and 2C19 isozymes appear to be principally involved in producing demethylcitalopram. Demethylcitalopram appears to be further N-demethylated by CYP2D6 to didemethylcitalopram. Citalopram metabolites possess little pharmacologic activity in comparison to their parent compound and do not likely contribute to the clinical effect of the drug.

Toxicity:

Symptoms most often accompanying citalopram overdose, alone or in combination with other drugs and/or alcohol, included dizziness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, tremor, somnolence, and sinus tachycardia. In more rare cases, observed symptoms included amnesia, confusion, coma, convulsions, hyperventilation, cyanosis, rhabdomyolysis, and ECG changes (including QTc prolongation, nodal rhythm, ventricular arrhythmia, and very rare cases of torsade de pointes). Acute renal failure has been very rarely reported accompanying overdose. Withdrawal symptoms include flu-like symptoms, insomnia, nausea, imbalance, sensory changes and hyperactivity.

IUPAC:
1-(3-(Dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1, 3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile monohydrobromide
ATC:
N06AB04
PubChem:
2771
DrugBank:
DB00215 (APRD00147)
Formula:
C20-H21-F-N2-O.Br-H
Molecular Mass:
405.3088
Synonyms:
1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile monohydrobromide, 5-Isobenzofurancarbonitrile, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-, monohydrobromide, Celexa, Cipramil, Citalopram HBr, Citalopram hydrobromide, EINECS 261-890-6, Elopram, HSDB 7042, Lu 10-171-B, Seropram, UNII-I1E9D14F36
SMILES:
CN(C)CCCC1(c2ccc(cc2CO1)C#N)c3ccc(cc3)F.Br
AHFS Code:
28:16.04.20
InChi:
1S/C20H21FN2O.BrH/c1-23(2)11-3-10-20(17-5-7-18(21)8-6-17)19-9-4-15(13-22)12-16(19)14-24-20;/h4-9,12H,3,10-11,14H2,1-2H3;1H
General Reference:
General Reference:
  1. Sindrup SH, Bjerre U, Dejgaard A, Brosen K, Aaes-Jorgensen T, Gram LF: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram relieves the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1992 Nov;52(5):547-52. [PubMed:1424428 ]
  2. Atmaca M, Kuloglu M, Tezcan E, Semercioz A: The efficacy of citalopram in the treatment of premature ejaculation: a placebo-controlled study. Int J Impot Res. 2002 Dec;14(6):502-5. [PubMed:12494286 ]
  3. Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Riis JO: Citalopram for post-stroke pathological crying. Lancet. 1993 Oct 2;342(8875):837-9. [PubMed:8104273 ]
  4. Clayton A, Keller A, McGarvey EL: Burden of phase-specific sexual dysfunction with SSRIs. J Affect Disord. 2006 Mar;91(1):27-32. Epub 2006 Jan 20. [PubMed:16430968 ]
  5. Baumann P: Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of citalopram and other SSRIs. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996 Mar;11 Suppl 1:5-11. [PubMed:8732438 ]
  6. Hyttel J, Bogeso KP, Perregaard J, Sanchez C: The pharmacological effect of citalopram residues in the (S)-(+)-enantiomer. J Neural Transm Gen Sect. 1992;88(2):157-60. [PubMed:1632943 ]
  7. Caccia S: Metabolism of the newer antidepressants. An overview of the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic implications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998 Apr;34(4):281-302. [PubMed:9571301 ]

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