The bactericidal activity of cefditoren results from the inhibition of cell wall synthesis via affinity for penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Cefditoren is stable in the presence of a variety of b-lactamases, including penicillinases and some cephalosporinases.
Cefditoren pivoxil is a prodrug which is hydrolyzed by esterases during absorption, and the drug is distributed in the circulating blood as active cefditoren. Cefditoren is a cephalosporin with antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens. Cefditoren is effective against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains, including b-lactamase-producing strains), penicillin-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae (including b-lactamase-producing strains), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (including b-lactamase-producing strains), Moraxella catarrhalis (including b-lactamase-producing strains), Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus Groups C and G, and Streptococcus, viridans group (penicillin-susceptible and -intermediate strains).
Hydrolysis of cefditoren pivoxil to its active component, cefditoren, results in the formation of pivalate. Cefditoren is not appreciably metabolized.
Information on cefditoren pivoxil overdosage in humans is not available. However, with other b-lactam antibiotics, adverse effects following overdosage have included nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhea, and convulsions. In acute animal toxicity studies, cefditoren pivoxil when tested at the limit oral doses of 5100 mg/kg in rats and up to 2000 mg/kg in dogs did not exhibit any health effects of concern.
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