Product Name

Busulfan

CAS Number

55-98-1

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Product Name:
Busulfan
CAS Number:
55-98-1
Indication:
For use in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia (FDA has designated busulfan as an orphan drug for this use). Also used as a component of pretransplant conditioning regimens in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia and nonmalignant diseases.
Mode of Action:

Busulfan is an alkylating agent that contains 2 labile methanesulfonate groups attached to opposite ends of a 4-carbon alkyl chain. Once busulfan is hydrolyzed, the methanesulfonate groups are released and carbonium ions are produced. These carbonium ions alkylate DNA, which results in the interference of DNA replication and RNA transcription, ultimately leading to the disruption of nucleic acid function. Specifically, its mechanism of action through alkylation produces guanine-adenine intrastrand crosslinks. This occurs through an SN2 reaction in which the relatively nucleophilic guanine N7 attacks the carbon adjacent to the mesylate leaving group. This kind of damage cannot be repaired by cellular machinery and thus the cell undergoes apoptosis.

Pharmacodynamics:

Busulfan is an antineoplastic in the class of alkylating agents and is used to treat various forms of cancer. Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells. They stop tumor growth by cross-linking guanine bases in DNA double-helix strands – directly attacking DNA. This makes the strands unable to uncoil and separate. As this is necessary in DNA replication, the cells can no longer divide. In addition, these drugs add methyl or other alkyl groups onto molecules where they do not belong which in turn leads to a miscoding of DNA. Alkylating agents are cell cycle-nonspecific and work by three different mechanisms, all of which achieve the same end result – disruption of DNA function and cell death.

Metabolism:

Mainly Hepatic. Busulfan is predominantly metabolized by conjugation with glutathione, both spontaneously and by glutathione S-transferase (GST) catalysis.

Toxicity:

Signs of overdose include allergic reaction, unusual bleeding or bruising, sudden weakness or unusual fatigue, persistent cough, congestion, or shortness of breath; flank, stomach or joint pain; pronounced nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, confusion, or darkening of the skin, chills, fever, collapse, and loss of consciousness.

IUPAC:
4-(methanesulfonyloxy)butyl methanesulfonate
ATC:
L01AB01
PubChem:
2478
DrugBank:
DB01008 (APRD00664)
Formula:
C19H24N6O5S2
Molecular Mass:
246.302
Synonyms:
Busulphan Busulphane Butanedioldimethanesulfonate Buzulfan Sulfabutin Sulphabutin Tetramethylene Dimethane Sulfonate Tetramethylenester Kyseliny Methansulfonove
SMILES:
CS(=O)(=O)OCCCCOS(C)(=O)=O
AHFS Code:
10:00.0
InChi:
COVZYZSDYWQREU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
General Reference:
General Reference:

  1. Lesurtel M, Graf R, Aleil B, Walther DJ, Tian Y, Jochum W, Gachet C, Bader M, Clavien PA: Platelet-derived serotonin mediates liver regeneration. Science. 2006 Apr 7;312(5770):104-7. Pubmed
  2. Valdez BC, Andersson BS: Interstrand crosslink inducing agents in pretransplant conditioning therapy for hematologic malignancies. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2010 Jul;51(6):659-68. Pubmed
  3. Hall AG, Tilby MJ: Mechanisms of action of, and modes of resistance to, alkylating agents used in the treatment of haematological malignancies. Blood Rev. 1992 Sep;6(3):163-73. Pubmed
  4. Ciurea SO, Andersson BS: Busulfan in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009 May;15(5):523-36. Epub 2009 Feb 12. Pubmed
  5. McCune JS, Holmberg LA: Busulfan in hematopoietic stem cell transplant setting. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Aug;5(8):957-69. Pubmed
  6. Krivoy N, Hoffer E, Lurie Y, Bentur Y, Rowe JM: Busulfan use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: pharmacology, dose adjustment, safety and efficacy in adults and children. Curr Drug Saf. 2008 Jan;3(1):60-6. Pubmed
  7. Nath CE, Shaw PJ: Busulphan in blood and marrow transplantation: dose, route, frequency and role of therapeutic drug monitoring. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jan;2(1):75-91. Pubmed

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