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Alogliptin Benzoate

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Product Details:

  • Product Name: Alogliptin Benzoate
  • CAS #: 850649-62-6
  • Mode of Action:

    Alogliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), which normally degrades the incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide 1 ( GLP-1). The inhibition of DPP-4 increases the amount of active plasma incretins which helps with glycemic control. GIP and GLP-1 stimulate glucose dependent secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 has the additional effects of suppressing glucose dependent glucagon secretion, inducing satiety, reducing food intake, and reducing gastric emptying.

  • Pharmacodynamics:

    Peak inhibition of DPP-4 occurs within 2-3 hours after a single-dose administration to healthy subjects. The peak inhibition of DPP-4 exceeded 93% across doses of 12.5 mg to 800 mg. Inhibition of DPP-4 remained above 80% at 24 hours for doses greater than or equal to 25 mg. Alogliptin also demonstrated decreases in postprandial glucagon while increasing postprandial active GLP-1 levels compared to placebo over an 8-hour period following a standardized meal. Alogliptin does not affect the QTc interval.

  • Metabolism:

    Alogliptin does not undergo extensive metabolism. Two minor metabolites that were detected are N-demethylated alogliptin (<1% of parent compound) and N-acetylated alogliptin (<6% of parent compound). The N-demethylated metabolite is active and an inhibitor of DPP-4. The N-acetylated metabolite is inactive. Cytochrome enzymes that are involved with the metabolism of alogliptin are CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 but the extent to which this occurs is minimal. Approximately 10-20% of the dose is hepatically metabolized by cytochrome enzymes.

  • Toxicity:

    Common adverse reactions (reported in ≥4% of patients treated with alogliptin 25 mg and more frequently than in patients who received placebo) are: nasopharyngitis, headache, and upper respiratory tract infection.

  • IUPAC: InChI=1S/C18H21N5O2.C7H6O2/c1-21-17(24)9-16(22-8-4-7-15(20)12-22)23(18(21)25)11-14-6-3-2-5-13(14)10-19;8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h2-3, 5-6, 9, 15H, 4, 7-8, 11-12, 20H2, 1H3;1-5H, (H, 8, 9)/t15-;/m1./s1
  • ATC: A10BH04
  • DrugBank: DB06203
  • Formula: C18-H21-N5-O2.C7-H6-O2
  • Molecular Mass: 461.5193
  • Synonyms: 2-((6-((3R)-3-amino-1-piperidinyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1(2H)- pyrimidinyl)methyl)benzonitrile monobenzoate, 6-((3R)-3-aminopiperidin-1-yl)-1-(2-cyanobenzyl)-3-methylpyrimidin-2,4(1H,3H)-dione monobenzoate, Alogliptin benzoate, SYR 322, SYR-322, UNII-EEN99869SC
  • SMILES: Cn1c(=O)cc(n(c1=O)Cc2ccccc2C#N)N3CCC[C@H](C3)N.c1ccc(cc1)C(=O)O
  • AHFS Code: 08:20.0
  • InChl: 1S/C18H21N5O2.C7H6O2/c1-21-17(24)9-16(22-8-4-7-15(20)12-22)23(18(21)25)11-14-6-3-2-5-13(14)10-19;8-7(9)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h2-3,5-6,9,15H,4,7-8,11-12,20H2,1H3;1-5H,(H,8,9)/t15-;/m1./s1
  • General Reference:

     

    1. Christopher R, Covington P, Davenport M, Fleck P, Mekki QA, Wann ER, Karim A: Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of single increasing doses of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin in healthy male subjects. Clin Ther. 2008 Mar;30(3):513-27. Pubmed
    2. Covington P, Christopher R, Davenport M, Fleck P, Mekki QA, Wann ER, Karim A: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and tolerability profiles of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor alogliptin: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study in adult patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Ther. 2008 Mar;30(3):499-512. Pubmed
    3. FDA label
    4. Golightly LK, Drayna CC, McDermott MT: Comparative clinical pharmacokinetics of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2012 Aug 1;51(8):501-14. doi: 10.2165/11632930-000000000-00000. Pubmed

     

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