For treatment of acute leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, acute erythraemia, acute panmyelosis
Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid antineoplastic agent used as a treatment for various cancers including breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease, Kaposi's sarcoma, and testicular cancer. The vinca alkaloids are structurally similar compounds comprised of 2 multiringed units, vindoline and catharanthine. The vinca alkaloids have become clinically useful since the discovery of their antitumour properties in 1959. Initially, extracts of the periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) were investigated because of putative hypoglycemic properties, but were noted to cause marrow suppression in rats and antileukemic effects in vitro. Vincristine binds to the microtubular proteins of the mitotic spindle, leading to crystallization of the microtubule and mitotic arrest or cell death. Vincristine has some immunosuppressant effect. The vinca alkaloids are considered to be cell cycle phase-specific.
Mode of Action:
The antitumor activity of Vincristine is thought to be due primarily to inhibition of mitosis at metaphase through its interaction with tubulin. Like other vinca alkaloids, Vincristine may also interfere with: 1) amino acid, cyclic AMP, and glutathione metabolism, 2) calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-transport ATPase activity, 3) cellular respiration, and 4) nucleic acid and lipid biosynthesis.
IVN-RAT LD50 1300 mg/kg; IPR-MUS LD50 5.2 mg/kg
Graf WD, Chance PF, Lensch MW, Eng LJ, Lipe HP, Bird TD: Severe vincristine neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Cancer. 1996 Apr 1;77(7):1356-62. Pubmed Qweider M, Gilsbach JM, Rohde V: Inadvertent intrathecal vincristine administration: a neurosurgical emergency. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007 Mar;6(3):280-3. Pubmed JOHNSON IS, ARMSTRONG JG, GORMAN M, BURNETT JP Jr: THE VINCA ALKALOIDS: A NEW CLASS OF ONCOLYTIC AGENTS. Cancer Res. 1963 Sep;23:1390-427. Pubmed
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