For treatment of acute migraine attacks with or without aura.
Rizatriptan is a selective agonist of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) type 1B and 1D receptors. It is structurally and pharmacologically related to other selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists and has only a weak affinity for 5-HT1A, 5-HT5A, and 5-HT7 receptors and no significant affinity or pharmacological activity at 5-HT2, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptor subtypes or at alpha1-, alpha2-, or beta-adrenergic, dopamine1,; dopamine2; muscarinic, or benzodiazepine receptors. This action in humans correlates with the relief of migraine headache. In addition to causing vasoconstriction, experimental data from animal studies show that Rizatriptan also activates 5-HT1 receptors on peripheral terminals of the trigeminal nerve innervating cranial blood vessels, which may also contribute to the antimigrainous effect of Rizatriptan in humans.
Mode of Action:
Three distinct pharmacological actions have been implicated in the antimigraine effect of the triptans: (1) stimulation of presynaptic 5-HT1D receptors, which serves to inhibit both dural vasodilation and inflammation; (2) direct inhibition of trigeminal nuclei cell excitability via 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonism in the brainstem and (3) vasoconstriction of meningeal, dural, cerebral or pial vessels as a result of vascular 5-HT1B receptor agonism.
Rizatriptan is metabolized by monoamine oxidase A isoenzyme (MAO-A) to an inactive indole acetic acid metabolite. In addition, several other inactive metabolites are formed. An active metabolite, N-monodesmethyl-rizatriptan, with pharmacological activity similar to that of the parent compound has been identified in small concentrations (14%) in the plasma.
Symptoms of overdose include dizziness, fainting, heart and blood vessel problems, high blood pressure, loss of bowel and bladder control, slow heartbeat, and vomiting.
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