Milnacipran is used to treat moderate to severe clinical depression and chronic pain.
Mode of Action:
Milnacipran inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake in a 3:1 ratio, in practical use this means a balanced (equal) action upon both transmitters. The serotonin reuptake inhibition is likely to improve depression, while the norepinephrine reuptake inihibition probably improves chronic pain. Milnacipran exerts no significant actions on postynaptic H1, alpha-1, D1, D2, and muscarinic receptors, as well as on benzodiazepine/opiate binding sites. [Wikipedia]
Only traces of active metabolites are found. Cytochrome P450 enzymes play no role in the metabolism of Milnacipran.
Leo RJ, Brooks VL: Clinical potential of milnacipran, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pain. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Jul;7(7):637-42. Pubmed Sato S, Yamakawa Y, Terashima Y, Ohta H, Asada T: Efficacy of milnacipran on cognitive dysfunction with post-stroke depression: preliminary open-label study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006 Oct;60(5):584-9. Pubmed Simon LS: Is milnacipran effective in treating pain in patients with fibromyalgia? Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006 Mar;2(3):126-7. Pubmed Soya A, Terao T, Nakajima M, Kojima H, Okamoto T, Inoue Y, Iwakawa M, Shinkai K, Yoshimura R, Ueta Y, Nakamura J: Effects of repeated milnacipran administration on brain serotonergic and noradrenergic functions in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Sep;187(4):526-7. Epub 2006 Jul 8. Pubmed King T, Rao S, Vanderah T, Chen Q, Vardanyan A, Porreca F: Differential blockade of nerve injury-induced shift in weight bearing and thermal and tactile hypersensitivity by milnacipran. J Pain. 2006 Jul;7(7):513-20. Pubmed Moojen VK, Martins MR, Reinke A, Feier G, Agostinho FR, Cechin EM, Quevedo J: Effects of milnacipran in animal models of anxiety and memory. Neurochem Res. 2006 Apr;31(4):571-7. Epub 2006 May 9. Pubmed Moret C, Charveron M, Finberg JP, Couzinier JP, Briley M: Biochemical profile of midalcipran (F 2207), 1-phenyl-1-diethyl-aminocarbonyl-2-aminomethyl-cyclopropane (Z) hydrochloride, a potential fourth generation antidepressant drug. Neuropharmacology. 1985 Dec;24(12):1211-9. Pubmed Briley M, Prost JF, Moret C: Preclinical pharmacology of milnacipran. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996 Sep;11 Suppl 4:9-14. Pubmed Puozzo C, Panconi E, Deprez D: Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of milnacipran. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002 Jun;17 Suppl 1:S25-35. Pubmed Leinonen E, Lepola U, Koponen H, Mehtonen OP, Rimon R: Long-term efficacy and safety of milnacipran compared to clomipramine in patients with major depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997 Dec;96(6):497-504. Pubmed Papakostas GI, Fava M: A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing milnacipran, a serotoninãnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007 Jan;17(1):32-6. Epub 2006 Jun 8. Pubmed Kako Y, Niwa Y, Toyomaki A, Yamanaka H, Kitagawa N, Denda K, Koyama T: A case of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder alleviated by milnacipran. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Apr 13;31(3):772-5. Epub 2007 Jan 12. Pubmed
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