For the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.
Ketoconazole, like clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole, is an imidazole antifungal agent.
Mode of Action:
Ketoconazole interacts with 14-_ demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary for the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol. This results in inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and increased fungal cellular permeability. Other mechanisms may involve the inhibition of endogenous respiration, interaction with membrane phospholipids, inhibition of yeast transformation to mycelial forms, inhibition of purine uptake, and impairment of triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis. Ketoconazole can also inhibit the synthesis of thromboxane and sterols such as aldosterone, cortisol, and testosterone.
Hepatotoxicity, LD50=86 mg/kg (orally in rat)
Goeders NE, Peltier RL, Guerin GF: Ketoconazole reduces low dose cocaine self-administration in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998 Dec 1;53(1):67-77. Pubmed Berwaerts J, Verhelst J, Mahler C, Abs R: Cushingês syndrome in pregnancy treated by ketoconazole: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1999 Jun;13(3):175-82. Pubmed Kazy Z, Puho E, Czeizel AE: Population-based case-control study of oral ketoconazole treatment for birth outcomes. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2005 Mar;45(1):5-8. Pubmed Pierard-Franchimont C, Goffin V, Decroix J, Pierard GE: A multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Nov-Dec;15(6):434-41. Pubmed
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API’s From Quality Manufacturers:
Cost effective materials based on specific requirements
Small quantities for initial research and larger development quantities towards product commercialization
Technical packages, letters of access to filed DMFs