For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible organisms: urinary tract infections, acute uncomplicated cystitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, lower respiratory tract infections, acute sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections, bone and joint infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole), infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever (enteric fever), uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea, and inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).
Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antiinfective agent of the fluoroquinolone class. Ciprofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. The mechanism of action of quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, is different from that of other antimicrobial agents such as beta-lactams, macrolides, tetracyclines, or aminoglycosides; therefore, organisms resistant to these drugs may be susceptible to ciprofloxacin. There is no known cross-resistance between ciprofloxacin and other classes of antimicrobials. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian.
Mode of Action:
The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, strand supercoiling repair, and recombination.
Hepatic. Four metabolites have been identified in human urine which together account for approximately 15% of an oral dose. The metabolites have antimicrobial activity, but are less active than unchanged ciprofloxacin.
The major adverse effect seen with use of is gastrointestinal irritation, common with many antibiotics.
Drusano GL, Standiford HC, Plaisance K, Forrest A, Leslie J, Caldwell J: Absolute oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986 Sep;30(3):444-6. Pubmed Hilliard JJ, Krause HM, Bernstein JI, Fernandez JA, Nguyen V, Ohemeng KA, Barrett JF: A comparison of active site binding of 4-quinolones and novel flavone gyrase inhibitors to DNA gyrase. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;390:59-69. Pubmed Spivey JM, Cummings DM, Pierson NR: Failure of prostatitis treatment secondary to probable ciprofloxacin-sucralfate drug interaction. Pharmacotherapy. 1996 Mar-Apr;16(2):314-6. Pubmed Brouwers JR: Drug interactions with quinolone antibacterials. Drug Saf. 1992 Jul-Aug;7(4):268-81. Pubmed
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