For the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including high-dose cisplatin (in combination with other antiemetic agents).
Aprepitant, an antiemetic, is a substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist which, in combination with other antiemetic agents, is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy. Aprepitant is a selective high-affinity antagonist of human substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. Aprepitant has little or no affinity for serotonin (5-HT3), dopamine, and corticosteroid receptors, the targets of existing therapies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CI NV).
Mode of Action:
Aprepitant has been shown in animal models to inhibit emesis induced by cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin, via central actions. Animal and human Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies with Aprepitant have shown that it crosses the blood brain barrier and occupies brain NK1 receptors. Animal and human studies show that Aprepitant augments the antiemetic activity of the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist ondansetron and the corticosteroid ethasone and inhibits both the acute and delayed phases of cisplatin induced emesis.
Aprepitant is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4 with minor metabolism by CYP1A2 and CYP2C19. Seven metabolites of aprepitant, which are only weakly active, have been identified in human plasma.
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