For the acute, intermittent treatment of hypomobility, off episodes (end-of-dose wearing off and unpredictable on/off episodes) associated with advanced Parkinson’s disease.
Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist, a morphine derivative which primarily affects the hypothalamic region of the brain. Drugs containing this substance are sometimes used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease or erectile dysfunction. In higher doses it is a highly effective emetic.
Mode of Action:
The precise mechanism of action of apomorphine as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease is unknown, although it is believed to be due to stimulation of post-synaptic dopamine D2-type receptors within the brain. Apomorphine has been shown to improve motor function in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. In particular, apomorphine attenuates the motor deficits induced by lesions in the ascending nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in primates.
LD50=0.6 mmoles/kg (mice, intraperitoneal)
Matsumoto K, Yoshida M, Andersson KE, Hedlund P: Effects in vitro and in vivo by apomorphine in the rat corpus cavernosum. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Sep;146(2):259-67. PubmedSCHWAB RS, AMADOR LV, LETTVIN JY: Apomorphine in Parkinson’s disease. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1951;56:251-3. PubmedCotzias GC, Papavasiliou PS, Fehling C, Kaufman B, Mena I: Similarities between neurologic effects of L-dipa and of apomorphine. N Engl J Med. 1970 Jan 1;282(1):31-3. PubmedCorsini GU, Del Zompo M, Gessa GL, Mangoni A: Therapeutic efficacy of apomorphine combined with an extracerebral inhibitor of dopamine receptors in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet. 1979 May 5;1(8123):954-6. PubmedChaudhuri KR, Clough C: Subcutaneous apomorphine in Parkinson’s disease. BMJ. 1998 Feb 28;316(7132):641. Pubmed
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